Planck Length to the Observable Universe

First posted: March 30, 2012   Last update: February 26, 2015

Please note: These pages extend the very first overview of the Big Board-little universe (January 2012), as well as a working-draft for an article for the academic community that was written for Wikipedia and within Wikipedia (March 2012). At that time, the working assumption was that a base-2 chart from the Planck Units was out there in some academic journal; it just hadn’t yet been indexed by Google. Then, it seemed that Wikipedia would be a good place to get high schools working together to further develop this concept-rich environment that was being ignored.

That was the early assumption in the early days of 2012. Our first draft for a working article was accepted and published early in April but then on May 3, 2012 a group of specialists within Wikipedia rejected it as “original research” and it was deleted. Another article for the general public (and perpetual students) was also written in March 2012 and was not accepted for publication. We are posting both as blogs on the web in an attempt to find out what was wrong with our simple logic, mathematics, and geometry.

What is simple? … a point? Yet, by definition a point cannot have dimension. So then, is it a vertex? …a node? Could this area be a point-free geometry? What kind of singularity might these Planck Units be? The very first doublings are a key to understand all the doublings. Yet, without question, this analysis will be an on-going process for the foreseeable future. It is a rather idiosyncratic access path to attempt to grasp the nature of reality by positing a small-scale universe that amounts to a pre-structure of all structure, one that gives rise to nodes or vertices, edges or lines, triangles and a multiplicity of 3D objects, and then to stuff of the human scale. So, it seems we must begin with most simple, the Planck Units, particularly the Planck Length, and begin to see what we can see in the process of multiplying by two. This type of exponential growth is called base-2. It creates a scale or orders of magnitude, a doubling (categories, clusters, groups, layers, notations, sets, steps and more).

Powers-of-two and Exponentiation based on the Planck length. Herein it is referred to as Base-2 Exponential Notation (B2). Can the universe, from the smallest to the largest, be seen in a more meaningful way using base-2 instead of base-ten scientific notation (B10) as used by Kees Boeke in 1957?

B2 renders more granularity and a necessary relationality through imputed (instantiated) nested or combinatorial geometries. The project originated with a series of five high-school geometry classes in December 2011. In looking at the five platonic solids, particularly the tetrahedron, the question was asked, “How far within could we go before hitting the walls of measurement or knowledge? Then, how far can we go before hitting the Planck Length?”

When we divided in half each of the six edges of a tetrahedron and connect those new vertices, we would find four half-sized tetrahedrons in each corner and an octahedron in the middle. Doing the same division within the octahedron, we find six half-sized octahedrons in each corner and eight tetrahedrons, one in each face. Within each object, we once assumed that we could divide those edges in half forever. Yet, unlike the limitless paradox introduced by Zeno (ca. 490 BC – ca. 430 BC), we had learned that the smallest conceptual measurement of a length within space and time was defined mathematically in and around 1899 by Max Planck. Though the Planck Constant, and Planck Length particularly, have not been universally accepted within the scientific community, it is a powerful concept based upon some of the most basic fundamentals of physics.

The Planck length is so small, it is written using exponential notation.

The number is 1.616199(97)x10-35 meters. As a starting point we looked at many of the online references to the Planck length. In March 2012, there were just 276 Google links to the number, 1.616199, (virtually none). In our last review there were over 140,000. Over the next few years, we suspect those references will grow even more substantially. It has to be one of the more important numbers within space and time.

Professor Laurence Eaves of the University of Nottingham in England has a delightful YouTube video that explains this length that is used to define a point.

In this simple exercise, take the Planck length and multiply it by 2, until we reach something that is measurable today (the diameter of a proton) and then to objects within the human scale, and finally to the edges of the Observable Universe. Mathematically, it will require somewhere over 200 notations or doublings. We arrived at several different numbers, one by a senior NASA scientist, now retired, and another by a French astrophysicist who gave us the figure of 205.1 notations (and he explains the difference – see footnote #5).

In five columns, the first column is the base-ten notations. The second column is a Planck number based on the number of base-2 notations from the Planck length. The third column is the number of primary vertices, the powers of two. The fourth column is for the incremental increase in size (length). And, the fifth column will continue to be used for simple reflections.

Notations: Clusters, Domains, Doublings, Groups, Layers, Sets

B10

B2

Primary
vertices

Planck Length Multiples

Discussions, Examples, Information, Speculations:

1
0
2^0=1 1.616199(97)×10-35m At the Planck Length, though it is a truly just a concept, let us take it as a given and that it is a special kind of vertex that is pointlike and a special kind of singularity. [Editor’s note: This page was compiled before the advice of Freeman Dyson was received that we should be using scaling laws and dimensional analysis, thus multiplying the vertices by 8.]
1 1 2^1=2 3.23239994×10-35m At the first notation or doubling, there are two vertices or nodes, perhaps the shortest possible line or edge. Nobody knows where current string theory comes into play.This is a domain for speculative work, but we suspect even superstring theory as it is currently understood comes much later. Perhaps we can only say that a two-dimensional object, a simple circle and a possible sphere emerge here and with every subsequent doubling. One might say that this notation is a necessary condition or initial condition for every subsequent doubling. Perhaps this might be called source code.
1 2 2^2=4 6.46479988×10-35m At the second notation there are four vertices or nodes. One might imagine that there are several logical possibilities yet within this speculative system, the simplest seems most logical. Three vertices form a triangle that define a plane and the fourth vertex forms a tetrahedron that defines the first three dimensions of space. Within the confines of the sphere, Pi or Π, that tetrahedron unfolds with the stacking of four equal spheres.
2 3 2^3=8 1.292959976×10-34m At the third doubling there are eight vertices. Again, one might imagine that the activity is still based on the sphere.

At some point the logical possibilities could possibly be expanded to include placing the vertices either inside the tetrahedron, on the edges of the tetrahedron or outside the tetrahedron. Again, it would seem that an octahedron and four tetrahedrons could readily begin to emerge. If added within (see the close-packing of equal spheres in Wikipedia), tetrahedral close-packed structures emerge. If added externally, with just three additional vertices, a tetrahedral pentagon is created of five tetrahedrons (picture to be added.

2 4 2^4=16 2.585919952×10-34m At the fourth doubling there are sixteen vertices. If any one of the vertices were to become a center point, and 10 vertices are extended from it, a tetrahedral icosahedron chain begins to emerge (picture to be added). With twenty vertices a simple dodecahedron is possible. And with the icosahedron, all five platonic solids are accounted. Among the many possibilities, in another configuration, a cluster of four polytetrahedral clusters (a total of 20 tetrahedrons) begin to emerge and completes with twenty vertices (picture to be added). With the tetrahedron these vertices could also divide the edges of the internal four tetrahedrons and one octahedron. If the focus was entirely within the octahedron, the first shared center point of the octahedron would begin to be defined and by the 18th vertex of the fourteen internal parts, eight tetrahedrons (one in each face) and the six octahedrons (one in each corner) would be defined (picture to be added).
2 5 2^5=32 5.171839904×10-34m At the fifth notation, there are 32 vertices. Here there is a possibility for a cluster of eight tetrahedral pentagons to emerge and complete with 34 vertices. Simple logic and the research within the work on cellular automaton suggest that the most simple possible structures emerge first
3 6 2^6=64 1.0343679808×10-33m At the sixth notation, there are 64 vertices. With just 43 of these, a hexacontagon could be created. It has 12 polytetrahedral clusters with an icosahedron in the middle.
3 7 2^7=128 2.0687359616×10-33m By the seventh doubling, the possibilities become more textured. The results are not. Simple exponential notation based on the power of two is well documented. Of course, by using base-2 exponential notation and starting at the Planck length, necessary relations might be intuited.
3 8 2^8=256 4.1374719232×10-33m Geometric complexification will be discussed. The nature of the perfect fittings, octahedrons and tetrahedrons, and the imperfect fitting, tetrahedrons making a pentastar or icosahedron, need review.
3 9 2^9=512 8.2749438464×10-33m In that pentastar the 7.368 degree spread — that is 1.54 steradians — increases within the icosahedron.
4 10 1024 1.65498876928×10-32m _
4 11 2048 3.30997752836×10-32m _
4 12 4096 6.61995505672×10-32m _
5 13 8192 1.323991011344×10-31m _
5 14 16,384 2.647982022688×10-31m _
5 15 32,768 5.295964045376×10-31m _
6 16 65,536 1.0591928090752×10-30m _
6 17 131,072 2.1183856181504×10-30m _
6 18 262,144 4.2367712363008×10-30m _
6 19 524,288 8.4735424726016×10-30m _
7 20 1,048,576 1.69470849452032×10-29m _
7 21 2,097,152 3.38941698904064×10-29m more information
7 22 4,194,304 6.77883397808128×10-29m _
8 23 8,388,608 1.355766795616256×10-28m _
8 24 16,777,216 2.711533591232512×10-28m _
8 25 33,554,432 5.423067182465024×10-28m _
9 26 67,108,864 1.0846134364930048×10-27m _
9 27 134,217,728 2.1692268729860096×10-27m
9 28 268,435,456 4.3384537459720192×10-27m _
9 29 536,870,912 8.6769074919440384×10-27m _
10 30 1,073,741,824 1.73538149438880768×10-26m _
10 31 2,147,483,648 3.47076299879961536×10-26m _
10 32 4,294,967,296 6.94152599×10-26m _
11 33 8,589,934,592 1.3883052×10-25m _
11 34 1.7179869×1011 2.7766104×10-25m Actual number: 17,179,869,184 vertices
11 35 3.4359738×1011 5.5532208×10-25m 34,359,738,368
12 36 6.8719476×1011 1.11064416×10-24m 68,719,476,736
12 37 1.3743895×1012 2.22128832×10-24m 137,438,953,472
12 38 2.7487790×1012 4.44257664×10-24m 274,877,906,944
12 39 5.4975581×1011 8.88515328×10-24m 549,755,813,888
13 40 1.0995116×1012 1.77703066×10-23m 1,099,511,627,776
13 41 2.1990232×1012 3.55406132×10-23m 2,199,023,255,552
13 42 4.3980465×1012 7.10812264×10-23m 4,398,046,511,104
14 43 8.7960930×1012 1.42162453×10-22m 8,796,093,022,208
14 44 1.7592186×1013 2.84324906×10-22m 17,592,186,044,416
14 45 3.5184372×1013 5.68649812×10-22m 35,184,372,088,832
15 46 7.0368744×1013 1.13729962×10-21m 70,368,744,177,664
15 47 1.4073748×1014 2.27459924×10-21m 140,737,488,355,328
15 48 2.8147497×1014 4.54919848×10-21m 281,474,976,710,656
15 49 5.6294995×1014 9.09839696×10-21m 562,949,953,421,312
16 50 1.12589988×1015 1.81967939×10-20m 1,125,899,906,842,624
16 51 2.25179981×1015 3.63935878×10-20m 2,251,799,813,685,248
16 52 4.50359962×1015 7.27871756×10-20m 4,503,599,627,370,496
17 53 9.00719925×1015 1.45574351×10-19m 9,007,199,254,740,992
17 54 1.80143985×1016 2.91148702×10-19m 18,014,398,509,481,984
17 55 3.60287970×1016 5.82297404×10-19m 36,028,797,018,963,968
18 56 7.205759840×1016 1.16459481×10-18m 72,057,594,037,927,936
18 57 1.44115188×1017 2.32918962×10-18m 144,115,188,075,855,872
18 58 2.88230376×10 17 4.65837924×10-18m 288,230,376,151,711,744
18 59 5.76460752×1017 9.31675848×10-18m 576,460,752,303,423,488
19 60 1.15292150×1018 1.86335169×10-17m 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
19 61 2.30584300×1018 3.72670339×10-17m 2,305,843,009,213,693,952
19 62 4.61168601×1018 7.45340678×10-17m 4,611,686,018,427,387,904
20 63 9.22337203×1018 1.49068136×10-16m 9,223,372,036,854,775,808
20 64 1.84467440×1019 2.98136272×10-16m 18,446,744,073,709,551,616
20 65 3.68934881×1019 5.96272544×10-16m 36,893,488,147,419,103,232
21 66 7.37869762×1019 1.19254509×10-15m 73,786,976,294,838,206,464
21 67 1.47573952×1020 2.38509018×10-15m 147,573,952,589,676,412,928
21

67

1.47573952×1020

2.38509018×10-15m 147,573,952,589,676,412,928
21 68

2.95147905×1020

4.77018036×10-15m 295,147,905,179,352,825,856
21 69

5.90295810×1020

9.54036072×10-15m 590,295,810,358,705,651,712
22 70

1.18059162×1021

1.90807214×10-14m 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424
22 71

2.36118324×1021

3.81614428×10-14m 2,361,183,241,434,822,606,848
22

72

4.72236648×1021

7.63228856×10-14m 4,722,366,482,869,645,213,696
23 73

9.44473296×1021

1.52645771×10-13m 9,444,732,965,739,290,427,392
23

74

1.88894659×1022

3.05291542×10-13m 18,889,465,931,478,580,854,784
23

75

3.77789318×1022

6.10583084×10-13m 37,778,931,862,957,161,709,568
24 76

7.55578637×1022

1.22116617×10-12m 75,557,863,725,914,323,419,136
24 77

1.51115727×1023

2.44233234×10-12m 151,115,727,451,828,646,838,272
24

78

3.02231454×1023

4.88466468×10-12m 302,231,454,903,657,293,676,544
24 79

6.04462909×1023

9.76932936×10-12m 604,462,909,807,314,587,353,088
25

80

1.20892581×1024

1.95386587×10-11m 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176
25 81

2.41785163×1024

3.90773174×10-11m 2,417,851,639,229,258,349,412,352>
25 82

4.83570327×1024

7.81546348×10-11m 4,835,703,278,458,516,698,824,704
_ _ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
26 83

9.67140655×1024

.156309264 nanometers
or 1.56309264×10-10m
9,671,406,556,917,033,397,649,408
26 84

1.93428131×1025

.312618528 nanometers 19,342,813,113,834,066,795,298,816
26 85

3.86856262×1025

.625237056 nanometers 38,685,626,227,668,133,590,597,632
_ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
27 86

7.73712524×1025

1.25047411 nanometers or
or 1.25047411×10-9m
77,371,252,455,336,267,181,195,264
27 87

1.54742504×1026

2.50094822 nanometers 154,742,504,910,672,534,362,390,528
27 88

3.09485009×1026

5.00189644 nanometers 309,485,009,821,345,068,724,781,056
_ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
28 89

6.18970019×1026

10.0037929 nanometers
or 1.00037929×10-8m
618,970,019,642,690,137,449,562,112
28 90

1.23794003×1027

20.0075858 nanometers 1,237,940,039,285,380,274,899,124,224
28 91

2.47588007×1027

40.0151716 nanometers 2,475,880,078,570,760,549,798,248,448
28 92

4.95176015×1027

80.0303432 nanometers 4,951,760,157,141,521,099,596,496,896
_ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
29 93

9.90352031×1027

160.060686 nanometers
or 1.60060686×10-7m
9,903,520,314,283,042,199,192,993,792
29 94

1.98070406×1028

320.121372 nanometers 19,807,040,628,566,084,398,385,987,584
29 95

3.96140812×1028

640.242744 nanometers 39,614,081,257,132,168,796,771,975,168
_ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
30 96

7.92281625×1028

1.28048549 microns
or 1.28048549×10-6m
79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,336
30 97

1.58456325×1029

2.56097098 microns 158,456,325,028,528,675,187,087,900,672
30 98

3.16912662×1029

5.12194196 microns 316,912,650,057,057,350,374,175,801,344
_ _ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
31 99

6.33825324×1029

10.2438839 microns
or 1.02438839×10-5m
633,825,300,114,114,700,748,351,602,688
31 100

1.26765065×1030

20.4877678 microns 1,267,650,600,228,229,401,496,703,205,376
31 101

2.53530130×1030

40.9755356 microns 2,535,301,200,456,458,802,993,406,410,752
31 102

5.07060260×1030

81.9510712 microns 5,070,602,400,912,917,605,986,812,821,504
_ _ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
32 103

1.01412052×1031

.163902142 millimeters
or 1.63902142×10-4m
10,141,204,801,825,835,211,973,625,643,008
32 104

2.02824104×1031

.327804284 millimeters 20,282,409,603,651,670,423,947,251,286,016
32 105

4.05648208×1031

.655608568 millimeters 40,564,819,207,303,340,847,894,502,572,032
_ _ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
33 106

8.11296416×1031

1.31121714 millimeters
or 1.31121714×10-3m
81,129,638,414,606,681,695,789,005,144,064
33 107

1.62259276×1032

2.62243428 millimeters 162,259,276,829,213,363,391,578,010,288,128
33 108

3.24518553×1032

5.24486856 millimeters 324,518,553,658,426,726,783,156,020,576,256
_ _________________ ______________________ ________________________
34 109

6.49037107×1032

1.04897375 centimeters
or 1.04897375×10-2m
649,037,107,316,853,453,566,312,041,152,512
34 110

1.29807421×1033

2.09794742 centimeters 1,298,074,214,633,706,907,132,624,082,305,024
34 111

2.59614842×1033

4.19589484 centimeters <2,596,148,429,267,413,814,265,248,164,610,048
34 112

5.19229685×1033

8.39178968 centimeters 5,192,296,858,534,827,628,530,496,329,220,096
35 113

1.03845937×1034

16.7835794 centimeters or
1.67835794×10-1m
10,384,593,717,069,655,257,060,992,65844,0192
35 114

2.0769437×1034

33.5671588 centimeters 20,769,187,434,139,310,514,121,985,316,880,384
35 115

4.1538374×1034

67.1343176 centimeters 41,538,374,868,278,621,028,243,970,633,760,768
36

116

8.3076749×1034

1.3426864 meters
or 52.86 inches
83,076,749,736,557,242,056,487,941,267,521,536
36 116 8.3076749×1034 1.3426864 meters or 52.86 inches 83,076,749,736,557,242,056,487,941,267,521,536
36 117 1.66153499×1035 2.6853728 meters 166,153,499,473,114,484,112,975,882,535,043,072
36 118 3.32306998×1035 5.3707456 meters 332,306,998,946,228,968,225,951,765,070,086,144
37 119 6.64613997×1035 10.7414912 meters 664,613,997,892,457,936,451,903,530,140,172,288
37 120 1.32922799×1036 21.4829824 meters 1,329,227,995,784,915,872,903,807,060,280,344,576
37 121 2.65845599×1036 42.9659648 meters 2,658,455,991,569,831,745,807,614,120,560,689,152
37 122 5.31691198×1036 85.9319296 meters 5,316,911,983,139,663,491,615,228,241,121,378,304
38 123 1.06338239×1037 171.86386 meters 10,633,823,966,279,326,983,230,456,482,242,756,608
38 124 2.12676479×1037 343.72772 meters 21,267,647,932,558,653,966,460,912,964,485,513,216
38 125 4.25352958×1037 687.455439 meters 42,535,295,865,117,307,932,921,825,928,971,026,432
39 126 8.50705917×1037 1.37491087 kilometers 85,070,591,730,234,615,865,843,651,857,942,052,864
39 127 1.70141183×1038 2.74982174 kilometers 170,141,183,460,469,231,731,687,303,715,884,105,728
39 128 3.40282366×1038 5.49964348 kilometers 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
40 129 6.04462936×1038 10.999287 kilometers 680,564,733,841,876,926,926,749,214,863,536,422,912
40 130 1.36112946×1039 21.998574 kilometers 1,361,129,467,683,753,853,853,498,429,727,072,845,824
40 131 2.72225893×1039 43.997148 kilometers 2,722,258,935,367,507,707,706,996,859,454,145,691,648
40 132 5.44451787×1039 87.994296 kilometers 5,444,517,870,735,015,415,413,993,718,908,291,383,296
41 133 1.08890357×1040 175.988592 kilometers 10,889,035,741,470,030,830,827,987,437,816,582,766,592
41 134 2.17780714×1040 351.977184 kilometers 21,778,071,482,940,061,661,655,974,875,633,165,33184
41 135 4.355614296×1040 703.954368 kilometers 43,556,142,965,880,123,323,311,949,751,266,331,066,368
42 136 8.711228593×1040 1407.90874 kilometers 87,112,285,931,760,246,646,623,899,502,532,662,132,736
42 137 1.742245718×1041 2815.81748 kilometers 174,224,571,863,520,493,293,247,799,005,065,324,265,472
41 134 2.17780714×1040 351.977184 kilometers 21,778,071,482,940,061,661,655,974,875,633,165,33184
41 135 4.355614296×1040 703.954368 kilometers 43,556,142,965,880,123,323,311,949,751,266,331,066,368
42 136 8.711228593×1040 1407.90874 kilometers 87,112,285,931,760,246,646,623,899,502,532,662,132,736
42 137 1.742245718×1041 2815.81748 kilometers 174,224,571,863,520,493,293,247,799,005,065,324,265,472
42 138 3.484491437×1041 5631.63496 kilometers 348,449,143,727,040,986,586,495,598,010,130,648,530,944
43 139 6.18970044×1041 11,263.2699 kilometers 696,898,287,454,081,973,172,991,196,020,261,297,061,888
43 140 1.23794009×1042 22,526.5398 kilometers 1,393,796,574,908,163,946,345,982,392,040,522,594,123,776
43 141 2.47588018×1042 45 053.079 kilometers 2,787,593,149,816,327,892,691,964,784,081,045,188,247,552
43 142 4.95176036×1042 90 106.158 kilometers 5,575,186,299,632,655,785,383,929,568,162,090,376,495,104
44 143 1.11503726×1043 180,212.316 kilometers 11,150,372,599,265,311,570,767,859,136,324,180,752,990,208
44 144 2.23007451×1043 360,424.632 kilometers 22,300,745,198,530,623,141,535,718,272,648,361,505,980,416
44 145 4.46014903×1043 720,849.264 kilometers 44,601,490,397,061,246,283,071,436,545,296,723,011,960,832
45 146 8.9202980×1043 1,441,698.55 kilometers 89,202,980,794,122,492,566,142,873,090,593,446,023,921,664
45 147 1.78405961×1044 2,883,397.1 kilometers 178,405,961,588,244,985,132,285,746,181,186,892,047,843,328
45 148 3.56811923×1044 5,766,794.2 kilometers 356811923176489970264571492362373784095686656
46 149 7.13623846×1044 11,533,588.4 kilometers 713623846352979940529142984724747568191373312
46 150 1.42724769×1045 23,067,176.8 kilometers 1427247692705959881058285969449495136382746624
46 151 2.85449538×1045 46,134,353.6 kilometers 2,854,495,385,411,919,762,116,571,938,898,990,272,765,493,248
46 152 5.70899077×1045 92,268,707.1 kilometers 5708990770823839524233143877797980545530986496
47 153
1.14179815×1046
184,537,414 kilometers 11417981541647679048466287755595961091061972992
47 154 2.28359638×1046 369,074,829 kilometers 22835963083295358096932575511191922182123945984
47 155 4.56719261×1046 738,149,657 kilometers 45671926166590716193865151022383844364247891968
48 156 9.13438523×1046 1.47629931×1012 meters 91343852333181432387730302044767688728495783936
48 157 1.826877046×1047 2.95259863×1012 meters 182687704666362864775460604089535377456991567872
48 158 3.653754093×1047 5.90519726×1012 meters 365375409332725729550921208179070754913983135744
49 159 7.307508186×1047 1.18103945×1013 meters 730750818665451459101842416358141509827966271488
49 160 1.461501637×1048 2.36207882 ×1013m 1461501637330902918203684832716283019655932542976
49 161 2.923003274×1048 4.72415764 ×1013m 2923003274661805836407369665432566039311865085952
49 162 5.846006549×1048 9.44831528 ×1013m 5846006549323611672814739330865132078623730171904
50 163 1.16920130×1049 1.88966306×1014m 11692013098647223345629478661730264157247460343808
50 164 2.33840261×1049 3.77932612×1014m 23384026197294446691258957323460528314494920687616
50 165 4.67680523×1049 7.55865224×1014m 46768052394588893382517914646921056628989841375232
51 166 9.35361047×1049 1.5117305×1015m 93536104789177786765035829293842113257979682750464
51 167 1.87072209×1050 3.0234609×1015m 187072209578355573530071658587684226515959365500928
51 168 3.74144419×1050 6.0469218×1015m 374144419156711147060143317175368453031918731001856
52 169 7.48288838×1050 1.20938436×1016m 748288838313422294120286634350736906063837462003712
52 170 1.49657767×1051 2.41876872×1016m 1496577676626844588240573268701473812127674924007424
52 171 2.99315535×1051 4.83753744 ×1016m 2993155353253689176481146537402947624255349848014848
52 172 5.98631070×1051 9.67507488 ×1016m 5986310706507378352962293074805895248510699696029696
53 173 1.19726214×1052 1.93501504 ×1017m 11972621413014756705924586149611790497021399392059392
53 174 2.39452428×1052 3.87002996 ×1017m 23945242826029513411849172299223580994042798784118784
53 175 4.78904856×1052 7.74005992 ×1017m 47890485652059026823698344598447161988085597568237568
54 176 9.57809713×1052 1.54801198×1018m 95780971304118053647396689196894323976171195136475136
54 177 1.91561942×1053 3.09602396×1018m 191561942608236107294793378393788647952342390272950272
54 178 3.83123885×1053 6.19204792×1018m 383123885216472214589586756787577295904684780545900544
55 179 7.66247770×1053 1.23840958×1019m 766247770432944429179173513575154591809369561091801088
55 180 1.53249554×1054 2.47681916×1019m 1532495540865888858358347027150309183618739122183602176
55 181 3.06499108×1054 4.95363832×1019m 3064991081731777716716694054300618367237478244367204352
55 182 6.12998216×1054 9.90727664×1019m 6129982163463555433433388108601236734474956488734408704
56 183 1.22599643×1055 1.981455338×1020m 12259964326927110866866776217202473468949912977468817408
56 184 2.45199286×1055 3.96291068×1020m 24519928653854221733733552434404946937899825954937634816
56 185 4.90398573×1055 7.92582136×1020m 49039857307708443467467104868809893875799651909875269632
57 186 9.80797146×1055 1.58516432×1021m 98079714615416886934934209737619787751599303819750539264
57 187 1.96159429×1056 3.17032864×1021m 196159429230833773869868419475239575503198607639501078528
57 188 3.92318858×1056 6.34065727 ×1021m 392318858461667547739736838950479151006397215279002157056
58 189 7.84637716×1056 1.26813145 ×1022m 784637716923335095479473677900958302012794430558004314112
58 190 1.56927543×1057 2.53626284×1022m 1569275433846670190958947355801916604025588861116008628224
58 191 3.13855086×1057 5.07252568×1022m 3138550867693340381917894711603833208051177722232017256448
59 192 6.27710173×1057 1.01450514×1023m 6277101735386680763835789423207666416102355444464034512896
59 193 1.25542034×1058 2.02901033×1023m 12554203470773361527671578846415332832204710888928069025792
59 194 2.51084069×1058 4.05802056×1023m 25108406941546723055343157692830665664409421777856138051584
59 195 5.02168138×1058 8.11604112×1023m 50216813883093446110686315385661331328818843555712276103168
60 196 1.00433628×1059 1.62320822×1024m 100433627766186892221372630771322662657637687111424552206336
60 197 2.0086725×1059 3.24641644×1024m 200867255532373784442745261542645325315275374222849104412672
60 198 4.01734511×1059 6.49283305×1024m 401734511064747568885490523085290650630550748445698208825344
61 199 8.03469022×1059 1.29856658×1025m 803469022129495137770981046170581301261101496891396417650688
61 200 1.60693804×1060 2.59713316×1025m 1606938044258990275541962092341162602522202993782792835301376
61 201 3.21387608×1060 5.19426632×1025m 3213876088517980551083924184682325205044405987565585670602752
_________________ ______________________ _____________________________________________
62 202 6.42775217×1060 1.03885326×1026 meters 6427752177035961102167848369364650410088811975131171341205504
62 203 1.28555043×1061 2.07770658×1026 meters 12855504354071922204335696738729300820177623950262342682411008
62 204 2.57110087×1061 4.15541315×1026 meters 25711008708143844408671393477458601640355247900524685364822016
62 205 5.14220174×1061 8.31082608×1026 meters 5142201741628768881734278695491720328071049580104937072964403
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